The Homework Debate The homework debate often focuses on how and why homework affects student learning and achievement. The Cooper synthesis a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased. For example, ensure that homework is at the appropriate level of difficulty. Students are spending too much time completing homework assignments instead of playing outside or enjoying leisure activities, which teach and enhance important life skills. Students need to be able to complete the work at home without assistance because some students do not have an English-speaking parents or guardians to help them. Although research has established the overall viability of homework as a tool to enhance student achievement, for the most part the research does not provide recommendations that are specific enough to help busy practitioners. They provided evidence that too much homework harms students’ health and family time, and they asserted that teachers are not well trained in how to assign homework.
As educators, the amount, frequency, and the purpose should be considered prior to assigning homework. Looking in classrooms 9th ed. National Education Commission on Time and Learning The battle over homework 3rd ed. Such assignments cause students and their parents or other family members to become engaged in conversations that relate to the academic curriculum and thus extend the students’ learning. Does homework increase student achievement? Journal of Research and Development in Education, 31 3 , —
For example, Cooper recommended robineon the basis of plus years of homework research that teachers should not comment on or grade every homework assignment. The reason for homework is to practice the content, NOT to learn the content.
A significant proportion of the research on homework indicates that the positive effects of fersus relate to the amount of homework that the student completes rather than the amount of time spent on homework or the amount of homework actually assigned.
The Patlal a study included more than empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study included about 50 empirical research reports. Perhaps the most important advantage of homework is that it can enhance achievement by extending learning beyond 206 school day.
Homework also has negative associations. This is the nature of research—it errs on the side of assuming that something does not work until substantial evidence establishes that it does. Instead of the quantity of homework, educators should improve the quality of the assignments. Instead, they should improve its instructional quality.
Grade Level Although teachers across the K—12 spectrum commonly assign homework, research has produced no clear-cut consensus on the benefits of homework at the early elementary grade levels. What is your stance on homework? Student reflections on parent involvement with homework. Enter the periodical title within the ” Get Permission ” search field. Thus, 5 to 10 minutes per subject might be appropriate for 4th graders, whereas 30 to 60 minutes might be appropriate for college-bound high school students.
Certainly, inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement.
Arguments against homework are becoming louder and more popular, as evidenced by several recent books as well as an editorial in Time magazine Wallis, that presented these arguments as truth without much discussion of alternative perspectives. All three of the books criticizing homework provide compelling anecdotes to this effect.
The authors suggested that individuals and parent groups should insist that teachers reduce the amount of homework, design more valuable assignments, and avoid homework altogether over breaks and holidays. Educational Researcher, 25 827— Students should not be assigned homework on concepts and skills they do not grasp. Riehl pointed out the similarity between education research and medical research.
Homework or No Homework
The Cooper synthesis a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework vrrsus night, and then decreased. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century, educators commonly believed that homework helped create disciplined minds. These investigations, taken cumulatively, can inform the work of practitioners who are building their own local knowledge bases on medical care. In The Battle over Homework coopre, Cooper noted that homework should have different purposes at different grade levels: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning by Kralovec and Buellconsidered by many to be the first high-profile attack versua homework, asserted that homework contributes to a corporate-style, competitive U.
A number of synthesis studies have been conducted on homework, spanning a broad range of methodologies and levels of specificity see fig. Teachers should not abandon homework. How homework disrupts families, overburdens children, and limits learning.
To enact effective homework policies, however, schools and districts must address the following issues.
Homework or No Homework
Involve parents in appropriate ways for example, as a sounding board to help students summarize what they learned from the homework without requiring parents to act as teachers or to police students’ homework completion. Educators can develop the most effective practices by observing changes in the achievement of the students with whom they work every day. Journal of Educational Research, 96— A comparison of medical research and education research.
It can lead to boredom if the student has already mastered the skills, and it can lead to loss of interest in school due to burnout.
Coopet time is especially important to a growing child and without it social problems can crop up and a family unit can be compromised by a lack of time being spent together. Homework or No Homework.