For instance, the report noted that, Our great weakness is the lack of adequate doctrine and technique for amphibious operations. Ruminations on the Reflections of John M. The use of vague concepts has an important implication for the way JCOA analysts conduct their analyses: Mandeles to Russ Goehring, Subject: While many adaptations were evident in-theater, much of this adaptation to reduce civilian casualties by forces was not specifically supported or addressed in their pre-deployment training. In , the first original article, which described the anatomical characteristics of Japanese knee joints, was published. A state description models the structures and processes under examination or sets criteria to identify them; it is a description of the world as sensed.
In the mids, Andy Marshall wrote three memoranda on the concept of military revolutions. The United States has long been committed to upholding the Law of Armed Conflict LOAC and minimizing collateral damage, which includes civilian casualties CIVCAS and unintended damage to civilian objects facilities, equipment, or other property that is not a military objective. Finally, the culture will influence practice by enabling people to communicate and share knowledge. Where appropriate, apply Afghanistan civilian casualty reduction best practices to operations outside declared theaters of armed conflict. This is especially true of the means and methods to be employed by Combat Teams and small units. Lessons learned and best practices developed from this finding do not alert commanders preparing to deploy to the complexity and obstacles in coordinating multi-national forces and to the difficulty of accomplishing desired goals.
Appendix A contains a list of locations visited in support of the study.
That is why we can say that, in science, we often learn from our mistakes, and why we can speak clearly and sensibly about making progress there. This would benefit those operations by avoiding negative second-order effects, which can curtail freedom of action and undermine US objectives. And, second, what concepts and themes, appropriate as initial context for studies, are available to JCOA?
Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. All research methodologies express a logic and procedure of analysis. Therein lies the problem. An initial set of themes and concepts to organize research on operational-level problems includes the following: JCOA develops lessons learned by examining unique events and experiences, defined by a particular place, time, and situation.
Mandeles, 22 July Houghton Middleton,pp. I will close with a few words about how I came to set boundaries to the operational analysis and assessment mission.
Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis (JCOA) Drone Strikes Civilian Casualty Considerations
At least four advantages will accrue to JCOA from supplementing its work on lessons learned and best practices with research to build knowledge about ccase and decision-making. Ruminations on the Reflections of John M.
The concept encompasses three interacting and reinforcing elements. These best practices and lessons should be shared with USG elements conducting these campaigns, including both leaders and elements responsible for executing operations. There is currently no requirement for the study team to devote deliberate and conscious effort to 1 provide historical and conceptual context for the topic under consideration; jco clarify explanatory concepts or causal mechanisms; or 3 treat the phenomena under examination as examples of known processes, types, concepts, problems, or phenomena.
First, developing a dedicated knowledge-building research tradition will open for JCOA a unique niche for operational- level analysis in the Department of Defense.
In addition, Fedayeen Saddam forces did not wear uniforms and fought using irregular tactics, contributing to U.
The Journal of the Japanese Clinical Orthopaedic Association
Remember me on this computer. Probably the two highest profile incidents during this time were the 21 December attack on a convoy that the Afghan government claimed included tribal leaders; and the 1 July AC attack on a group in Deh Rawud, central Afghanistan, that turned out to be a wedding party. Counterinsurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan As insurgencies developed in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States was forced to adopt a counterinsurgency COIN approach for which it was largely unprepared.
Propositions should be selected from a summary of themes and concepts, and hypotheses prepared about what we should expect to find and to not find at each level of analysis. Include specific causal factors for civilian casualties in training.
General Odierno has emphasized a need to base doctrine on empirical description and assessment of operations on several other occasions, including in the video teleconference cited above. The themes also do not divide along academic disciplinary boundaries. Architects and engineers rely on similar handbooks that represent the accumulation of extensive research and experience, and contain codified, detailed data and knowledge sttudy to create or develop all sorts of products and structures.
The consequences of failing to apply knowledge to the research process and to findings are costly; JCOA gives up opportunities to support operational forces and their commandersand to fill an unoccupied organizational niche within the DoD for the conduct of operational-level analyses.
For example, one pitfall occurs when the study team conducts so many interviews jcla it does not have the time to properly transcribe and annotate the discussion. The elevation of the conceptual element of operational analysis in JCOA studies would decrease, but not eliminate, the current emphasis on collecting, aggregating, analyzing, and disseminating joint lessons learned.
To be sure, the analyses and assessments already conducted are not all perfect; some assessments are limited by the availability of appropriate data; some may be guided by pre-determined conclusions; and others may not provide useful recommendations. Civilian Casualty Considerations 2 pages June 18, The US government has described drone airstrikes in operations outside declared theaters of armed conflict as surgical and causing minimal civilian casualties.
For example, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, studh Edition, provides authoritative listings of fundamental physical constants, such as properties of ionic liquids and solids.
These data are now in the studh of the Ordnance Department. The logic of grounding operational assessment on authoritative data is straightforward.