Sugar is also added to act as a sweetener. The storage fungi do not invade grains before harvest Christensen and Kaufmann, The control sample had lowest values of 0. Cereals, pulses and derived products”. Current regulations encompass about 13 different groups of mycotoxins Van Egmond et al. All these and much more if not properly manage could contribute to the spoilage of kunu has total solids too which may encourage growth of strains to hazardous levels during storage at ambient temperature Olasupo et al.
The drink is usually sold at the motor parks, school premises, market places and even served during social gatherings. There are often consumed by children, people, whose religion restricts alcohol and anyone wishing to enjoy flavor drinks without alcohol, It is mostly consumed in the north for its thirst quenching properties Elmahmond et al. Production of tigernut milk Tigernut milk extract was produced according to the method of Odunfa and Adeyeye Nevertheless, fungi are well-known for their role to produce secondary metabolites or mycotoxins Magan and Lacey, The resulting kunun zaki samples were analyzed for proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, microbial loads, and sensory evaluation. Incidence of aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes and ochratoxins in Nigerian foods and possible intervention strategies.
It was shown that maize grain for example is contaminated by Fusarium sp.
Thus, a combination of legumes with grains forms a well-balanced diet for vegetarians. Nutrition and diet therapy principles and practise 5th edition.
Literature review of kunu zaki
Revie structures of Fumonisin B1 and B2 Fumonisins have been found to produce a broad range of pathological effects in mammals Shephard et al. Moench, is known under a variety of names: Kunun zaki and tigernut milk were mixed in three different proportions of This is the first documented evidence of fusaric acid contamination of Nigerian rice.
Other fungal metabolites extracted from the kunnu samples includes Asperglaucide, which occurs in all samples kuun a mean value of Likewise, TCT has been literrature associated with anemia, digestive disorders, leukopenia, and skin irritation. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fortifying kunun zaki with tigernut milk extract due to nutritional deficiency of the former.
All determinations were carried out in triplicates.
Literature review on kunun zaki
It has a low to moderate toxicity, but may be synergistic with other naturally occurring mycotoxins such as kojic acid and fumonisins when saki directly into fertile chicken eggs or insect larvae Dowd ; Bacon et al. The corresponding peak areas of the spiked samples were used for the calculation of apparent recoveries by comparison to a standard prepared and diluted in neat solvent.
Nonpharmacologic therapies that reduce blood pressure: There are often consumed by children, people, whose religion restricts alcohol and anyone wishing to enjoy flavor drinks without alcohol, It is mostly consumed in the north for its thirst quenching properties Elmahmond et al.
The nondetection of coliforms and Staphylococcus in the samples could be as a result of good manufacturing and hygiene practices observed during production.
Literature review of kunu zaki
One ml of dilution to was pipetted from each test tube unto the potato dextrose agar and incubated for 3days at ambient temperature. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The collected samples were dried and ground into meal in a mortal and pestle, sealed in sterile zip-lock plastic bags and refrigerated before being taken to the laboratory for further analysis.
Aflatoxins are the most common and probably the most significant mycotoxin in terms of human and animal health risk Bluma and Etcheverry, Proximate analysis Proximate analysis of moisture, ash, fat, and protein contents of kunun zaki samples was carried out using the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC Grain sorghum is used for flours, porridges and side dishes, malted and distilled beverages, and specialty foods such as popped grain.
Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. By Damola O Adejoro. Its cheapness is owed to the ready availability of cereals and additives locally sourced as they grow throughout the savannah belt of west Africa Elmahood, Furthermore, a failure to properly clean equipment used to sample, process and package or lkterature the milled rice samples could have affected the contamination.
Furthermore, this is the first documented report of the occurrence of FB3 in Nigerian rice. Other Aspergillus metabolites 3- Nitropopionic acid and Nigragilin has more reviww in the samples, 3- Nitropopionic acid has a mean value of 1. It widely consumed for its thirst quenching properties most especially during the dry season Elmahmood and Doughari, Different cereal types have abilities to contribute to the ash contents of kunun zaki as a result of the differences in their ash compositions.
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However, good manufacturing and good hygiene practices should be given utmost importance during production to avoid microbial contamination that may cause foodborne illness. Nevertheless, fungi are well-known for their role to produce secondary metabolites or mycotoxins Magan and Lacey, This low level is of no concern, because kubu toxicity of this substance was demonstrated for much higher adsorption Yekeler et al.
Values are mean scores of three replicated samples. Beauvericin was also detected in all the rice samples.