Lower down in the Munigi area, the eruption appears to have been more gas driven. An adequate lead time for evacuation therefore includes a sufficient period of warning to allow the NGOs and international agencies to gear up for the emergency, which will be longer than the warning time need for the population to leave under an evacuation plan. ReliefWeb Informing humanitarians worldwide. Vulnerability assessment is a method of evaluating environmental hazards for the factors that amplify their impacts on populations or the environment. The eruption began without warning at
An on-going two-year programme under the auspices of the World Food Programme for the supply of food to displaced and other vulnerable persons was in progress. Cholera risk in Goma. The video from Mt Goma shows the clouds of ash and smoke from burning vegetation around the vents and flows on the volcano being convected into the air during the day, and the progression of both lava flows into the city in the evening and night. The lake was pH 8 the organisms can only multiply in alkaline media, but are killed in fresh water. Probably not all of this would have undergone chlorination because the chlorination sites were not all up and running until 23 January. The GVO has to have credibility with these organizations and the international agencies such as WHO, and their credibility is now being enhanced by the visible input of expert foreign scientists.
There are possibly numerous places nykragongo carbon dioxide is emitted from the lava rocks by the edge of the lake. By 31 July, bloody diarrhoea S.
The case for cash: Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption – ODI HPN
When it reopened in January large aircraft could not be kt. Security was the main reason for the rapid return of the population: There is a plan to resettle 40, people from Goma at a new development near Lac Vert, not far from Sake this plan, which is going ahead anyway under local political direction, should be reviewed following a formal scientific risk assessment.
These events raised international concern over the hazard of the two volcanoes to the settled refugees. For various reasons see belowthis type of eruption would be more dangerous than either the or January events.
Many of refugees were located by Lake Kivu, but as there was no available way to purify and transport sufficient quantities of water most of the refugees consumed untreated water.
The two mass movements of refugees, in andwere amongst the most dramatic population movements in history. Goma airport cannot be relied upon for the delivery of humanitarian supplies in a future eruption as it may be covered by a lava flow.
The significant findings were, in the lake water, fluoride levels of 1.
Goma is well supplied with food, which is normally quite cheap; the problem was the money to buy it with. The observations of intense post-eruptive seismicity and widespread ground subsidence in the Kivu rift, together with both the synchronism of the eruption with volcano fracturing over 20 km.
The water intake pipe for the Lac Kivu station is only a few metres away from the edge of the lava flow. Nyiragongo previously erupted in caae people may have died in stufy over run by the very fluid lava which broke out of the crater without warning from a fracture high up on the south east flank of the volcano.
Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo Pages 1 – 3 – Text Version | FlipHTML5
stufy The lessons that need to be considered in volcanic risk management for the present population of the Goma area include the following:. This matter is addressed in the next section. The WHO should establish its own programme of action in Goma, including monitoring the impact of the volcanic crisis on health and emergency preparedness for a future eruption.
Political vulnerability, which includes the humanitarian crisis, will profoundly affect how the people regard warnings about impending eruptions and their beliefs in taking actions such as evacuation to protect themselves. In this study, we highlight human, infrastructural, geo-environmental and, above all, political vulnerability as the key issues to be considered in the Goma volcanic crisis.
People in Goma were spectators of the events until the lava flows began to enter the city towards the late afternoon, when they too began to leave by the roads east and west out of the city. The other hazards include the delayed explosion of flammable stores, intensely hot lava flows emitting steam in heavy rains, strong earthquakes leading to building collapse, the methane explosions, no means of sterilizing drinking water, raised fluoride levels near the lake water intakes for the city, lack of food and fuel, continuing movement of lava and extruded tongues of lava from lateral vents, and the unpredictability of the whole situation.
The lack of security and fear of violence, the absence of democratic institutions, are the main issues affecting human vulnerability in this and future volcanic crises. The most obvious difference between the two lava flows is that the western one had cooled much nyirragongo than the main one by the time it reached Goma.
Thousands of people spent the night in safety on Mt Nyiraagongo, where an unparalleled view of the eruption was obtained.
The health risk from contaminated food and drinking water in Goma is exacerbated by these local geological features:. Many earthquakes around were felt on nyirabongo 19 January, with 10 large ones, some of which caused at least two houses to collapse.
An unknown, but probably important, number of the diarrhoeal cases were cholera. In contrast, Nyramuragira volcano erupts on a much more frequent basis and a new eruption could occur any time in the near future.
Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo
However, the low mortality might make people underestimate the volcanic hazard in the future with consequently higher loss of life. ReliefWeb Informing humanitarians worldwide.
The economic activity which the programme revived, based on carpenters and builders, sent a buzz through the whole town and demonstrated clearly what a difference the reintroduction of wages made to the economy.
Saunders, Housing, Lives and Livelihoods: There was overwhelming evidence that, within a day or two, the only value of another plastic sheet or another cooking-pot was in its sale. The absence of civil institutions and democratically elected government means that there are none of the usual administrative structures by which governing bodies can make decisions on societal risk and long term planning on behalf of the Goma population.
Occupants have to pay to have the pits emptied. Injured survivors of eruptions usually suffer from serious burns – a burns team should be sent as required, as skin grafting is often necessary to prevent long-term disability.