The video from Mt Goma shows the clouds of ash and smoke from burning vegetation around the vents and flows on the volcano being convected into the air during the day, and the progression of both lava flows into the city in the evening and night. The risk of death and injury from the volcano has to be weighed against the risk from other causes of loss of life due to the vulnerability of the population to daily threats from violence, malnutrition and endemic infectious diseases. Food security in the occupied Palestinian territory. The lessons that need to be considered in volcanic risk management for the present population of the Goma area include the following:. The patients are normally expected to pay for hospital and health clinic treatment, though charges for health care were wavered in the two months after the eruption, when use of the facilities markedly increased as a result.
It took five days to distribute the food to those in need in Goma, and after 25 January the distribution switched to hospitals, camps and to people living outside Goma. By 21 January, most of these people had returned to Goma, with approximately 30, persons left scattered in the Goma area and in two camps in Rwanda19 felt earthquakes continued for days afterwards, a reminder that the volcanic activity might not be over, but the eruption had officially ceased on 18 January, though for several days afterwards lava continued to flow into Lake Kivu at the delta created by the main lava flow. It was no secret that they were going to sell the goods, and that the ensuing flood of cheap aluminium pots or plastic sheets would debase the local market and make things worse for small traders. The findings indicate that most, if not all, the lava drained from the crater lake out through the fissures, even as far as fissures in Goma itself. The lava flows cut two main power lines and transformers that supply electricity across the city. The high death rate, which was almost entirely attributable to diarrhoeal disease, was unprecedented for refugee populations up to that time. The lack of fires spreading further in the city was an unexpected finding and significantly reduced the overall hazard.
In democratic societies, government officials and elected representatives are volcanno concerned about societal risk in their judgements and recommendations in crises – which often places them in conflict with individuals who rightly perceive that their own risk might be small and acceptable to them wearing car seat-belts is an example.
Nyiragongo Volcanic Eruption 2002
Family kits, providing household items, were important and greatly needed, but everything in the kit could be bought in Goma. Water samples were obtained for analysis by the British Geological Survey in March from the lake and from two streams in Sake which were used for drinking water.
The very fluid lava flows were not considered to be a major threat to Goma. Although one hospital and two health centres were destroyed, access to health care actually improved after the eruption, with the temporary waving of charges. The major epidemic-prone diseases cholera, measles, malaria and dysentery are endemic and were therefore expected to spread following the overcrowding and displacement.
These scenarios are also good reasons for not returning to the city after an eruption until the activity has clearly declined. Volcanic risk management is currently focused on the Goma Volcano Observatory with support from international scientists.
The evacuation of Goma would therefore also reduce the loss of life expected in a gas release from Lake Kivu. Often concealed by cloud, Nyiragongo has been reluctant to yield its secrets. Meteosat-8 Images Met-8, 12 July The two mass movements of refugees, in andwere amongst the most dramatic population movements in history. Recommendations are made for the co-ordination by WHO of the health sector response to the continuing crisis, including emergency planning.
On Monday 12 Julyat The devastating cholera outbreak in in Rwandan refugees in Goma and the neighbouring camp areas was due to the total reliance of the population on Lake Kivu as the only source of drinking water, as the area is built upon the hard rock of old, porous lava flows there are no wells or rivers.
Both eruptions were observed in satellite images. This difference is strongly influenced by surface temperature variations and by changes in the water vapour content so that the signal from the SO2 plume is only visible at certain times e.
Submit Content Share information through ReliefWeb to better inform humanitarians worldwide. The major priorities identified were nyiragongi follows:. Thus it is clear that for effective real-time monitoring of volcanic activity, images from geostationary satellites are essential and provide valuable information that is not contained in single images from polar-orbiting satellites.
The humanitarian and political situation also has a close nyieagongo on the resources that can be brought to volcano monitoring and the forecasting of eruptive activity, as well as the responses studu the population to the communication of volcanic risk and warnings to evacuate in a crisis. The management of the volcanic crisis cannot be undertaken without including the other threats to life in the region, which is already in a humanitarian situation of disaster proportions.
Human health and vulnerability in the Nyiragongo volcano crisis DR Congo Jun 2002
In Goma, individual risk is the current criterion of the people and, in the absence of governmental mechanisms to evaluate and act on societal risk, it is almost inevitable vopcano in a further crisis significant loss of life could occur.
This approach includes the careful siting of human settlements and key infrastructure, such as hospitals and other buildings of importance, overhead power supplies and sub-stations, the water pumping stations and eruptiom water distribution networks, stores of emergency food and other essential supplies, etc. Stucy previously erupted in when people may have died in villages over run by the nyirwgongo fluid lava which broke out of the crater without warning from a fracture high up on the south east flank of the volcano.
The houses became occupied by as many as three families, which placed even greater loads on the existing latrines. The aid response As aid responses go, Goma was not badly served. The threat of an underwater volcanic eruption causing a violent outpouring of gases was considered by Tuttle, Lockwood and Evans in a USGS Open File Report following a brief field visit to the lake by the authors in and it was not published.
Nyiragongo Volcanic Eruption – Mindmap in GCSE Geography
The onset of the eruption was preceded by almost 8 hours of very casf seismicity and it started without any detectable vokcano signal at local time. The risk assessment will need to incorporate expert opinion on the health hazards, especially cholera, which remains a serious hazard in a mass movement of the population of Goma in response to nhiragongo volcanic threat.
What we can conclude at this stage is that vulnerability amplifies the danger to the population of Goma in two main ways. Goma is well supplied with food, which is normally quite cheap; the problem was the money to buy it with. The fear of giving money is almost pathological among aid agencies, even though, or maybe because, it would be simpler and cheaper to give than any other form of help.
As the lava entered the lake it turned it acidic,poisoning the water and the fish. The volcano was made notorious by this event, with its future hazard defined by its unique potential for the sudden release of lava of a very fluid type due to its highly alkalic composition.