De Jong, Westerhof, and Creemers accounted for the relationship of many factors to one another in examining homework and math education. On the other hand, some researchers are echoing those of the Vietnam era, claiming that “a predictable backlash [has] set in, led by beleaguered parents concerned about the stresses on their children” Cooper, Robinson, and Patall , 4. The results showed a positive association between the amount of homework and students’ grades for children in grades six through ten and a negative association for children in grades two through four. Results from her study indicated that students who were assigned homework scored higher on vocabulary tests than those who were not. Other researchers claim that homework helps students develop responsibility and life skills and the ability to manage tasks and that it provides experiential learning, increased motivation, opportunities to learn to cope with difficulties and distractions, and academic benefits Corno and Xu ; Coutts ; Xu and Corno However, it is not known if this disparity would be any more of a disadvantage in homework than in regular classwork.
In an effort to compare these two homework practices, Foyle examined their effectiveness in tenth-grade American history. However, he concluded that, “with regard to achievement, all eight studies found that homework involving preparation for new material or practice of old material led to higher scores on tests than homework that dealt solely with the content of the present day’s lesson” Skip to main content. Researchers also have examined possible nonacademic benefits from homework. Trautwein and Koller also say that lack of longitudinal data and the fact that some of the studies are conducted by teachers themselves, rather than impartial researchers, may lead to overstating the effects of homework. These findings contribute to the body of research claiming that homework may be detrimental to younger students.
Project MUSE – Meanings of Homework and Implications for Practice
The problem with this focus is the lack of consistent results. It is important to remember, however, that path analysis does not assume causality—it simply proposes a model of causality.
Her findings indicated no differences in math achievement scores between students in the two homework groups. Overall, these researchers noted, “After-school programs can serve a protective function for children, particularly for those who do not have access to other structured after-school activities or homework assistance at home” Cosden et al.
Lower-achieving students may take more time than higher-achieving students to finish assignments. These findings contribute to the body of research claiming that homework may be detrimental to younger students.
By examining taped sessions and interviews with parents and students, they discovered that homework helped ho,ework graders learn responsibility and develop time-management and job-management skills.
Effects of learning-style-based homework prescriptions on the achievement and attitudes of middle school homeework. Cooper’s meta-analysis of seventeen studies measuring such a relationship noted fifty correlations among the studies; “of the 50 correlations, 43 indicated that students who reported spending more time on homework also scored higher on a measure of achievement or attitude” In a more rigorous statistical test of school homework policies and student math achievement, Philips found that students at schools where above-average amounts of homework were assigned compared to the total sample of schools had higher math achievement than did students at schools where students did less homework.
In one older study, schools in which more homework was routinely assigned had higher levels of student achievement compared to schools where regular homework was not expected Rutter, Maughan, Mortimore, and Ouston By examining taped sessions and interviews with parents and 2004, they discovered that homework helped third graders learn responsibility and develop time- management and job-management skills.
They do not show that one factor causes another. Given the shortcomings of correlational studies, Homewprk a and Cooper and colleagues suggest an emphasis on experimental and quasi-experimental studies.
The researchers hypothesized that other factors, such as parent support at home, may help strengthen homework’s effect on students of various ethnic and racial backgrounds.
Finally, she found that students who were assigned interactive homework received better science grades than students who were assigned other types of homework. However, as mentioned earlier, homework assigned to younger students may have its main effects on nonacademic outcomes, and teachers may be assigning young students homework for noninstructional purposes.
What is the Purpose of Homework?
According to Keith’s proposed path analysis, homework has a causal effect on high school achievement. This article examines how research has considered these varying meanings and perceptions and how they may impact student attitudes ho,ework behaviors toward homework. On the other hand, some researchers are echoing those of the Vietnam era, claiming that “a predictable backlash [has] set in, led by beleaguered parents concerned jomework the stresses on their children” Cooper, Robinson, and Patall4.
Muhlenbruck and colleagues provide a direct examination of the link between homework, grade level, and achievement. It is less clear whether homework can facilitate parents’ involvement in children’s schoolwork, however.
What is the Purpose of Homework? – McREL International
As reported in one study, students in predominantly minority schools do less homework than those in predominantly white schools. Paschal, Weinstein, and Walberg discovered through a meta-analysis of fifteen quantitative studies that homework did have a positive effect on achievement, especially in certain grade levels.
Homework motivation and preference: Educational Psychologist36 3— For instance, of the eight studies included in Cooper’s b meta-analysis of preparation and practice homework, only two studies examined the effects of both 22004.
What the research homswork for school districts The conflicting nature of the research findings noted in this review reflects the continuing debate surrounding the value of homework.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review
couttss Homework can be assigned for instructional and noninstructional purposes Cooper, aboth of which can be further subdivided. It is less clear whether homework can facilitate parents’ involvement in children’s schoolwork, however. The researchers found that older students the fifth- and seventh-graders spent more time studying harder items and performed better than the younger students. Cooper’s review of studies that included teacher feedback measures found no significant impact on student achievement from the type of feedback provided by teachers.
According to Cooper ateachers can provide four types of feedback: Unfortunately, research and commentary offer conflicting conclusions on homework. With so many factors influencing homework’s efficacy in learning, staying informed of the research and making the best decisions possible with available data may be the greatest steps policymakers can take couttss help ensure student learning in their districts. As this review will show, the research suggests that homework may benefit some students under certain conditions.