Such models have been developed from the Cam-Clay Model and, therefore, share the basic assumptions of linear behaviour within the elastic recoverable state, while the associated flow rule at the yield surface is applied. It should be noted that, Eqs. Decentralisation in Hong Kong: The coefficient of earth pressure at rest Ko , by definition, is equal to the ratio of the initial effective horizontal stress to the initial effective vertical stress. After the values of the horizontal stress were obtained, the coefficient of the earth pressure at rest, Ko is calculated by: It can be seen that both Eu,i and Eu,50 increase with the confining pressures. Undrained shear strength from field vane shear and CKoU triaxial tests are utilised for soft to medium stiff and stiff to hard clays, respectively.

Calculate Et using Eq. The variation of Ei and E50 with the confining pressure, as obtained from the CIU triaxial and consolidation tests, are illustrated in Figure 4. The Pushed-in Pressuremeter PIP was primarily developed for use in offshore drilling; however, the recent version was designed for onshore use with cone trucks. A Summary of each model is given in Chapter 2. Temporary segmental rings Un-excavated station box Figure 3. For this purpose data from the ten percent sample of the and censuses Various indirect laboratory techniques, i.

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The peak value of the undrained shear strength, su1 i. In Chapter 5, soil parameter interpretations from the Dissretation pressuremeter tests are discussed with the emphasis on their application in finite element analyses. Strong overhead support systems are required to carry the load of the covering material.

General geological conditions of this project are discussed earlier in Chapter 3.

Balasubramaniam Chaudhry, ; Ahmed, ; Hassan, ; Kim, ; Gurung,are straim re-analysed. This section summarises the literature related to deep excavation projects in Bangkok subsoils. An alternative approach of shear strength determination from the limit pressure is to use empirical correlations.

The deformations along the boundaries line AC and CD were kept free to allow for a smooth rissertation along the axes of symmetry, while the deformations perpendicular to the boundaries were fixed. Indeed, it is common for Bangkok residents to travel by their own cars, especially as owning an automobile is considered to be a prestigious status symbol among the Thai Society. Isotropic hardening double surface plasticity models 5.

The initiative is to find an alternative source disserttion soil parameters that can be adapted in the higher order soil models, such as the Hardening Soil Model.

Now showing items of 41 Next Page. It is then followed by the construction of the actual tunnel structure; after that the excavated trench is back filled again. The study also provided the relationship between srtain maximum surface settlement and the HME values, in accordance with the face advance sequence adopted.

Plot the variations of Ei and E50 with the confining pressure see Figure 4. Although a large number of constitutive models have been developed, the majority are predominantly used for research oriented proposes. The strength values are tabulated and presented as graphs.

For shield tunnelling, Attewell divides the sources of volume loss into 4 categories, which are the face loss, the shield loss, the tail loss and the radial loss after grouting. In this case the equation can be simplified as: He concluded that the overall trough width parameter ifor single and twin tunnels, was about m and m, respectively.

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The third part presents an attempt to make a 2D finite element modelling of the triaxial and oedometer tests using Plaxis software. The general background of the MRT projects in Bangkok subsoils is presented in the first part of this chapter.

A range of numerical modelling techniques are also discussed. The spoil or excavated soil is loosened by the tools of the cutting wheel, drops through the working chamber and are taken dissertqtion through the screw conveyor disserfation belt conveyor as shown in Figure 2. The drained strength and stiffness parameters are needed in the undrained modelling using the advanced soil model i.

Seneviratne, TM [ Thesis-Abstract ]. Over several decades extensive ground water pumping from the aquifers has caused large piezometric drawdowns and alarming subsidence. The hyperbolic stress-strain function is widely accepted because it is applicable for both effective and total stress analyses.

The test equipment and procedure used were in accordance with Seah and Koslanant This cake is then excavated by tools in the chamber and mixed with supporting fluid. A total of six governing parameters, including gap parameter, dissertatiom of soil elastic parameter, coefficient of earth pressure at rest K0plasticity parameters, grouting pressure and soil unit weight, have been considered in their study.

Therefore, they have high influence on both triaxial and oedometer behaviour. After combining Equations 2. Significantly, the parameter M is not a direct input parameter in the SSM. Transverse Settlement Trough Profile Peck, Peck proposed a plot of i versus depth from the ground surface to the tunnel axis zwith both being normalised by the tunnel radius R dissertwtion, as illustrated in Figure dissertatino.

The typical soil profiles from both projects are shown in Figures 3.