The questionnaire was sent on 11 April , and the responses were requested by 30 April Sequences from all EV types have been used to create consensus sequences shown in the alignment. Existing diagnostic screening of stool samples together with occasional CSF samples was ineffective for the detection of EV-D68 as this EV type, which primarily causes respiratory infections, is only very rarely detected in stool or CSF samples [ 21 , 22 ]. However, as current EV surveillance primarily aims for identification of poliovirus, detection of EV types typically targets clinical cases with symptoms of AFP, meningitis and encephalitis as well as occasional cases with gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms [ 26 ]. WHO; Mar
All authors contributed to the manuscript and approved the final version. Classification of enteroviruses based on molecular and biological properties. The questionnaire was divided into four parts. This study was mainly based on the EV surveillance and detection activities performed within the national public health institutions; we have not collected information on laboratory capacities and performances at the sub-national level. Curr Opin Infect Dis. Two cases of acute severe flaccid myelitis associated with enterovirus D68 infection in children, Norway, autumn
Molecular characterization of enteroviruses associated with neurological infections in Spain, Species B EVs are the main causes of aseptic meningitis in Europe [ 14 – 16 ].
As we identified a few potential mismatches with primers in terms of EV-D68 and EV-C detection, it is important to consider that not all previously published primers or commercial assays can detect all EV types. Would recommend collection of vesicle swab if HFMD suspected.
Enterovirus D a clinically important respiratory enterovirus.
You may share and adapt the material, but must give appropriate credit to the source, provide a link to the licence, and indicate if changes were made. National laboratory capability for EV esway. ECDC; 14 Jun To our knowledge, there are no previous Europe-wide data available on the methods currently used for EV surveillance, detection and typing.
We have mapped European laboratory capacity for identification and characterisation of non-polio EVs to improve preparedness to respond to re -emerging EVs linked to severe disease. National laboratory participates into external QA on detection.
Enterovirus D68: a clinically important respiratory enterovirus.
Twenty-nine countries responded; 26 conducted laboratory-based non-polio EV surveillance, and 24 included neurological infections in their surveillance. Typing only by neutralisation test.
Most performed typing of EV-positive samples obtained from individuals with neurological infections, but only half of the countries included respiratory infections, HFMD, myocarditis, haemorrhagic conjunctivitis and post-mortem investigations in their laboratory-based EV surveillance. Non-national laboratories offer also primary EV testing. Arch Pathol Lab Med.
Enterovirus D68 – Research Paper Example
Detection of enterovirus D68 in patients hospitalised in three tertiary university hospitals in Germany, to The Pirbright Institute; 7 Jun HH coordinated the data collection and analysis, as well as the drafting of the manuscript.
The use of appropriate testing methodologies is of the greatest importance for any laboratory-based surveillance system. National laboratory offers any EV testing.
Type of surveillance system. However, to optimise laboratory-based EV surveillance including neurological infections, it is important to consider which sample types are tested for EV [ enterovrius41 ]. General enterovirrus of EV testing.
The classical method to diagnose EV infection has been virus isolation by cell culture from clinical specimens, followed by neutralisation assay to determine the serotype [ 23 ]. If the country was unable to provide an exact number, we used the upper limit of estimation for the calculations.
The questionnaire was sent on 11 Apriland the responses were requested enterovvirus 30 April A cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and ennterovirus nerve dysfunction temporally associated with an outbreak of enterovirus D68 in children in Colorado, USA.
Only culture-positive EVs typed. Existing diagnostic screening of stool samples together with occasional CSF samples was ineffective for the detection of EV-D68 as this EV type, which primarily causes respiratory infections, is only very rarely detected in stool or CSF samples [ 2122 ].
Virus isolation is furthermore known to be less sensitive and much slower than molecular methods, which are easier to implement on the larger scales required for effective EV surveillance [ 4346 ]. Furthermore, molecular typing of EV-positive samples has also traditionally focused on species B EVs. Test all respiratory samples for Entetovirus.
No ethical committee approval was required as no patient related material was collected. Based on the survey response, four countries have established a reporting system for HFMD and two have initiated specific surveillance for it Figure 3.
The recent outbreaks of EV-D68 and EV-A71 infections fssay Europe emerging over the past 3 years have posed major concerns for local, national and international public health organisations.
National guidance on testing should consider inclusion of respiratory and stool samples in addition to CSF samples for EV identification and characterisation in case of suspected neurological infections.