Kingsland, The Evolution of American Ecology, — p. She sought to prove a few things with this piece. Boles, “Turner, the frontier, and the study of religion in America,” Journal of the Early Republic 13 2 pp. He won wide acclaim among historians and intellectuals. Through her research, she came up with four reasons that she believed made Turner exclude women from the frontier.
What made modern America the way it is? He most cogently articulated this idea in “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” which he first delivered to a gathering of historians in at Chicago, then the site of the World’s Columbian Exposition, an enormous fair to mark the four-hundredth anniversary of Columbus’ voyage. The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching. Other historians, who wanted to focus scholarship on minorities, especially Native Americans and Hispanics, started in the s to criticize the frontier thesis because it did not attempt to explain the evolution of those groups. He also stressed results, especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianism , a lack of interest in high culture , and violence. Each side, the Westerners and the native savages, struggled for mastery of the land through violence.
Turner saw the land frontier was ending, since the U. Before him, historians had considered America’s history as simply an extension of Europe’s.
How much do Accuarte New England and the California of the transcontinental railroad really have in common?
PBS – THE WEST – Frederick Jackson Turner
They capture the imagination. Turner held that the American character was decisively shaped by conditions on the frontier, in particular the abundance of free land, america settling of which engendered such traits as self-reliance, individualisminventiveness, restless energy, mobility, materialism, and optimism. Philosophy of historythe study either turnefs the historical process and its development or of the methods used by historians to understand their material.
In analyzing this set of articles, one finds many differing views that must be sorted through and filtered for valuable information. Instead Fermilab’s planners sought to return to Turnerian themes.
Nevertheless, he made it clear that his historical writing was shaped by a contemporary agenda.
Turner may have had difficulty writing books, but he was a brilliant master of the historical essay. His deep, melodious voice commanded attention whether he was addressing a teachers group, an audience freeerick alumni, or a branch of the Chautauqua movement.
The mainstream of the profession has long since discarded Turner’s assumption ameircan the frontier is the key to American history as a whole; they point instead to the critical influence of such factors as slavery and the Civil War, immigration, and the development of industrial capitalism. These examples go to prove that Turner was right in saying that the frontier created a new, exceptional person- an American.
Turner first announced his thesis in a paper entitled ” The Significance amrican the Frontier in American History “, delivered to the American Historical Association in in Chicago. Turner displayed this by reiterating that the U.
Army posts provided protection from the constant threat of the “savages” that existed constantly on the periphery of civilization. Subsequent critics, historians, and politicians have suggested that other ‘frontiers,’ such jackeon scientific innovation, could serve similar functions in American development. Moreover, these revisionist scholars argue, for many places the West has not been the land of freedom and opportunity that both Turnerian history and popular mythology would have us believe.
He thought historians could write history objectively by looking at sources and extracting facts from them.
However, the work of historians during the s—s, some of whom sought to bury Turner’s conception of the frontier, and others who sought to spare the concept but with nuance, have done much to place Western myths in context. Nash, “The frontier thesis: He argued that the frontier had meant that every American generation returned “to primitive jackosn on a continually advancing frontier line.
The significance of the frontier in an age of transnational history. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. European characteristics fell by the wayside and the old country’s institutions e. American Civil War, four-year war —65 between the United States and 11 Southern states that seceded….
They also agreed that the “frontier” was over, and that a new page in history was about to begin. He also calls it a masterpiece, in the sense th it broke new ground, and drew a flurry of both positive and negative attention; much the way that George Braque had done with his Cubist masterpiece paintings.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American exceptionality could be placed in the hands of most any American institution, or even all the institutions together that made America a separate and unique nation. The frontier, they argued, shaped uniquely American institutions such as revivals, camp meetings, and itinerant preaching.
The “composite nationality” “melting-pot” ethnicity of many immigrants and cultures merging together ; growing economic autonomy as a result of new domestic merchants who rose to rival foreign importation of goods; proceedings of lawmaking of the national government that utilized a more loose frojtier of the constitution to facilitate growth and expansion as well as internal improvements for the frontier; the emergence of an American democracy resulting from the emerging individualistic attitudes aamerican settlers as the became more and more secluded from the Eastern civilization; and a new “American intellect” that was pragmatic and individualistic; were all direct results, in some shape or form, of the frontier process.
But as Turner mailed copies to fellow historians, he began to receive positive fredeeick, and eventually become well known among his most prominent contemporaries. Not the constitution but free land and an abundance of natural resources open to a fit people, made the democratic type of society in America for three centuries while it occupied its empire. The term history may be employed in two quite different senses: Cooperation and communities of various thwsis, not isolated individuals, made possible the absorption of the West into the United States.