Obviously, the strength of qualitative content analysis is that it is strictly controlled methodologically and that the material is analyzed step-by-step. However, “extraction” seems to be closely related to MAYRING’s structuring since it literally means the extraction of the relevant information from the text by the means of using a category system. As a consequence, it is clear that the CA, with rare exceptions, has been used in an uncritical way, mainly because it figures only as a reference in the section of method feature ad hoc without any loyalty to the application of one of his techniques, and this weakens its use. Since arguments concerning the content are judged to be more important than methodical issues in qualitative analysis, validity takes priority over reliability MAYRING, , p. Furthermore, for case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study’s purpose is to develop or test theory, with theory development taking place prior to the collection of any case study data being an essential step in doing case studies YIN, a, pp. Thus, it is assumed that phenomena have relative stability and, depending on the theoretical model and the abstract theory of which it is a simplification, it can be analyzed from various perspectives; but as much of the researches that use CA, it does not take into account the clear existence of a phenomenon, this point can be difficult to understand.
The rising popularity of mixed methods approaches and the use of triangulation have already been mentioned briefly in the introduction of this paper. For example, a common practice is the use of structured or semi-structured script from which the researcher conducts the interview. Figure 3 shows the steps of deductive category application. Model is an interpretative description of the phenomenon that facilitates the intellectual or perceptual access to it. This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research. The consideration of this role model seems essential, because in its absence, the researcher is faced with a series of data which, by themselves, are not able to say much about a more stable phenomenon, although this stability, in the case of research in psychology, is provisional.
Indeed, the case study’s unique strength is “its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations” YIN, a, p. Qualitative Social Research1 2.
It is this combination that fosters its strong ability to deal with complexity. Encoding, step of transforming of the raw data from corpus, making use of records to be grouped in the future.
Being a little bit more specific he defines qualitative content analysis in the following way:.
Kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research
As the author tried to demonstrate in Section 4. Finally, checking the findings with the case study participants can be a valuable part of the analysis and can enhance validity HARTLEY,p. The topic cover letter switchboard operator choice is rare in research studies, where it is usually substituted by a more.
Fitting the material into a model of communication: The main idea of the procedure is to formulate a criterion of definition, derived from the theoretical background and the research question, which determines the aspects of the textual material taken into account. As a matter of fact, this notion of triangulation to argue in favor of an integration of qualitative and quantitative methods is not limited to content analysis but has been raised by many researchers cf.
They contend that “coding forces the researcher to make judgments about the meanings of contiguous blocks” and that coding is “the heart and soul” of whole text analysis ibid.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – ePubWU
That being so, it would be minimized theoretical recursion problems, which constitutes in the data according to the underlying theory of the researcher with the data distortion. Social Research Methods 2 Alan Bryman Studien csse qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse.
On the meaning and the epistemological qualitatice of the notion of a scientific phenomenon, Synthese2 Thus, we believe that this qualitative CA may in fact to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in psychology.
However, the basic difference between classical content analysis and structuring within qualitative content analysis is the development and use of the coding agenda 7. Within a feedback loop the categories are revised, eventually reduced to main categories and checked in respect to their reliability MAYRING, a, . Its development Section 4.
We log anonymous usage statistics. In an opposite perspective, the theory appears as a great backdrop, as a horizon which provides for the interpretation of data. Properties of the coders: Qualitative content analysis takes a holistic and comprehensive approach towards analyzing data material and thus achieves to almost completely grasp and cover the complexity of the social situations examined and social data material derived from them.
Above, we said that qualitative content analysis aims to preserve the advantages of quantitative content analysis but at the same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation see Section 4.
Therefore they argue in favor of a theory-based category system, which is more open and can be changed during extraction when relevant information turns up but does not fit into the category system.
However, depending on the depth and range of the extant literature, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended.
Having its origin in navigation, military strategy and geodetic surveying, the term triangulation in social research is used in a less literal sense to describe the use of qaulitative methods and measures of an empirical phenomenon cf. Categories in the center of analysis: Thus, if the same set of data can serve as evidence for various theories, it is essential to have in mind the phenomenon to analyze the data Bendassolli, As a result, inference in content analysis confines itself only to specific features of external and internal validity.
Not all units of analysis depends on the sort of unit and the concrete technique must be coded; and inductive categories are not operationalizations of variables; but it is true, that the interpretative but rule guided process of assigning categories to text portions is crucial for qualitative content analysis. Categories are understood as the more or less operational definitions of variables. Moreover, the analysis demonstrates how the key concepts are related. In fact, experts in social research recommend to conduct interpretations of results on two levels: University of Pittsburgh Press.