Comparison with a non-intervention group appears to strengthen the evaluation, but PAR also provides an opportunity to implement an innovative strategy sensitive to the workplace situation. Evaluating categories or dimensions of work, rather than specific sources of stress, reduces situational specificity Van Veldhoven et al. This could have implications for measures being introduced to address problems of stress in nursing. Regarding the latter, most studies refer to this in the context of mental health problems arising from stress, though some Gold, ; Lavoie-Tremblay, ; Lavoie-Tremblay et al. Data collection methods will also have to capture evidence despite variable response rates due to staff turnover, and a wider application of qualitative methods used to effect in two of the studies; Gold, ; Boivie et al. Corresponding author Andrew McVicar can be contacted at:
Nature of stress targeted and the participatory process. Engaging the workforce at every level, and especially at senior management level, is a time-intensive process that has to be maintained. Data collection methods will also have to capture evidence despite variable response rates due to staff turnover, and a wider application of qualitative methods used to effect in two of the studies; Gold, ; Boivie et al. The aim of the present study therefore was to elucidate the characteristics of successful collaborative interventions through a review of empirical studies that specifically, and successfully, applied a PAR approach to stress management. There is evidence that the Halbesleben et al. Eight studies only included. The uniqueness of any given workplace means that even restricting the review to PAR will still identify variations in study design.
Help Sttess Find new research papers in: The fifth survey was nine months after the Work Environment Scales intervention Turnover rate from staff records Heaney et al.
Accordingly a non-systematic scoping review Anderson et al. Although linked to stress they were not explicitly concerned with stress management, and so were not considered further.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
revied Designs are complex, but PAR provides the means of resolving critical issues of stakeholder engagement, including managers, and of ensuring a reliable evaluation strategy.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. Three either did not apply survey tools Gold, ; Boivie et al. However, Bond and Bunce identify that wider, far-reaching changes may have to be introduced over a longer term to have an impact.
Randomly Included plenary, individual and small group sessions, characteristics allocated to an intervention and facilitated by consultant and to a control group Five work groups: In some studies they were also used to develop solutions, and two Gold, ; Boivie et al.
A literatuee of 32 scales were used across the studies, either selected from those already available 18 different scales across all studies; see Table III or designed specifically for the purpose of the study three studieswhile three studies also referred to staff or management records andred data on absenteeism or turnover.
However, whilst the focus is organizational, perhaps the greatest lever to engage participants will always be the perceived benefit to the individual liiterature to take part, whether that person is an employer, employee or union representative, and this will be a challenge for researchers while building and maintaining rapport and trust. The uniqueness of any given workplace means that even restricting the review to PAR will still identify variations in study design. The variety of settings suggests that the economic sector and nature of business are not important factors when selecting a site for participative research into workplace stress.
The resultant self-assessment tool for employees is available at www. Stress perception is highly subjective, and so the complexity of nursing eorkplace may result in variation between nurses in their identification of sources of stress, especially when the workplace and roles of nurses are changing, as is currently occurring in the Revifw Kingdom health service.
Recent trends suggest that psychosocial interventions are increasingly being applied Lamontagne et al. Social lead researcher and senior UK healthcare organization and a services: Individual-focused approaches continue to dominate UK strategy for stress management despite growing evidence that systems approaches, involving collaborative action to change the workplace environment, may offer a more beneficial means of addressing the impacts of job stress for both individuals and organizations.
To identify nurses’ perceptions of workplace stress, consider the potential effectiveness of initiatives to reduce distress, and identify directions for future research.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
Evaluating categories or dimensions of work, rather than specific sources of stress, reduces situational specificity Van Veldhoven et al. Prioritize constraints, develop action plans Implementation teams: If participation is to be fully successful then it is essential that senior managers recognize that resolving factors pertaining to employment, rather than individuals, are the most appropriate means of managing workplace stress, 34 and that they, and unions, should be engaged in the participatory process and be supportive of initiatives.
Nature of stress targeted, and the participatory process: Collaboration enables stakeholders with different kinds of expertise to solve problems together — perhaps also with input from external experts, such as occupational psychologists — and a feature was the amount of time that had to be committed in the early phase of the study to agree access, share expectations, agree a timeframe and to formally establish a commitment from the workforce.
Two management sessions held on this Renewal of mission: Study aims should not be over-ambitious.
Organizational interventions are targeted at most but not all of these sources, and their litfrature is likely to be limited, at least in the short to medium term. Features of the studies were collated according to: This could have implications for measures being introduced to address problems of stress in nursing.
The approach has distinguishable organizational characteristics through its focus on system development, co-learning processes, participation, democratic process, empowerment and lkterature search for a balance between research and intervention Schurman, Collaboration issues Improved wor,place outcomes following organizational change are more likely to be lasting if they engender a positive attitude to collaborative learning among managers and workers Lunt et al.
With the systems approach, translation of research findings into actions is a significant barrier, and empowering staff and their participation is a key factor e. Several databases of andrea related to mental or physical health, psychology and organizational research, were searched to provide the broad basis to the review.
Qualitative methods were prominent in the participatory process and included the use of interviews, focus groups and observations to explore the problem area, usually after the initial survey had been completed.